5-axis CNC machining, as the name implies, is a mode of CNC machining. Using linear interpolation motion of any 5 coordinates in X-axis, Y-axis, Z-axis, A-axis, B-axis, and C-axis. The machining center used for 5-axis CNC machining technology is usually called a 5-axis machining center or 5-axis CNC machining center.
Within the CNC machining service industry, 5-axis CNC machining is the core technology for high-efficiency and high-precision machining.
Generally, the machining centers we use now are 3-axis machining centers. 3-axis machining center refers to X-axis, Y-axis, Z-axis, 3 linear axes. Its structure form is relatively simple. When the 3-axis machining center is processing, the direction of the tool axis will not change. The movement is also limited, and the programming is relatively easy. Of course, there are also 4-axis machining centers. 4-axis machining center refers to X-axis, Y-axis, Z-axis, and A-axis.
Here, the A-axis is the axis that rotates around the X-axis. The 5-axis machining center has two more rotation axes than 3-axis. That is, in addition to the 3 linear axes X, Y, and Z, the 5-axis machining center also includes two of the A, B, and C rotary axes around the 3 linear axes respectively. This technology has been widely used in high precision instrument manufacturing fields such as marine, aerospace, automotive, light industry, and medical.
5-axis machining center commonly has the following 3 typical mechanical structure forms.
Two rotation coordinates directly control the direction of the tool axis (Double Pivot Spindle Head)
Two rotation coordinates directly control the rotation of the workpiece (Double Rotary Table)
Two rotating coordinates, one on the tool and one on the workpiece (Rotary Table + Pivoting Spindle Head)
Advantages of 5-axis
The difference between 3-axis and 5-axis is mainly reflected in the processing capacity. A 5-axis machining center can do the work of a 3-axis machining center, but not the reverse. The presence of two rotary axes gives 5-axis machining center a stronger machining capability. The advantages of the 5-axis are mainly reflected in the following points.
1. Quick and easy setup
Since the tool can rotate on multiple axes, there is no need to set up interruptions in the machining process. The tool can work on all surfaces, except the bottom and the fixed area. The vast majority of work can be done in a single setup.
Read more: Benefits of using 5-Axis CNC Machining